Wednesday, 27 December 2017

The Witcher Franchise Familiariser

In the last ten years, the Witcher series has grown from a relatively obscure (to English-speaking audiences) Polish fantasy series to a major franchise, driven by three highly successful video games and an English translation of the original books. A Netflix TV series is now in development. But what if you haven’t yet sampled the series and want to find out what’s going on? Time for a franchise familiariser course.

Five of the primary characters of The Witcher saga, from left to right: Yennefer, Ciri, Geralt, Vesemir and Triss.


The Basics

The Witcher is a series of short stories, novels and videos games set in a land known only as “The Continent”. The Continent is divided between the Northern Kingdoms, which are the primary setting for both the books and games, and the massive Empire of Nilfgaard to the south. Nilfgaard invades the Northern Kingdoms three times in an attempt to annex them, and these wars form the backdrop for many of the stories in the series.

The titular “Witcher” is a reference to Geralt of Rivia, the primary protagonist and viewpoint character of the series. However, the books move away from Geralt as the only major character and introduce other characters of equal or arguably greater importance, such as the sorceress Yennefer and Geralt’s sort-of apprentice, Ciri.

The books were written by Andrzej Sapkowski (1948-present). These comprise two collections of short stories, a five-novel series (often known The Witcher Saga) and a stand-alone prequel novel. Sapkowski has mooted returning to the world for additional books and stories.

The video games were created by Polish developer CD Projekt Red. To date, three games have been developed and released, along with some additional spin-offs. A fourth game (which will be set in the same world but not carry on the previous storyline from the game) is tentatively planned. Sapkowski advised on the games, but did not write the storyline, which was instead written by a team of writers (Marcin Blacha is the only writer credited with working on all three games).

Netflix are developing a Witcher television series, with West Wing, Daredevil and Defenders writer Lauren Smith Hissrich serving as showrunner. Jarek Sawko and Tomek Baginski, who both worked on the video games, are attached as producers.



The Canon

The Witcher canon is a slightly complicated beast due to the fact that the franchise originated as a book series written by one author, but it was the video game trilogy which boosted it into a world-famous series. The video games take the books as canon, and frequently refer to events in the novels, but Sapkowski does not accept the video games as canon himself (although he has written nothing – so far – to contradict the games). For the purposes of this guide, we will assume that the novels and video games form one canon for now. It is unknown if the upcoming TV series will adapt the books, the video games, both or do something completely different.


The Witcher Short Stories by Andrzej Sapkowski (in chronological order)

The Last Wish (1993)
  • The Voice of Reason
  • The Witcher
  • A Grain of Truth
  • The Lesser Evil
  • A Question of Price
  • The Edge of the World
  • The Last Wish

Sword of Destiny (1992)
  • The Bounds of Reason
  • A Shard of Ice
  • Eternal Flame
  • A Little Sacrifice
  • The Sword of Destiny
  • Something More

Note: The Last Wish was a reprint of an earlier short story collection called The Witcher (1990), which included all of the stories in that collection plus several new ones. However, although The Last Wish supersedes The Witcher in the canon, it omits the short story “The Road With No Return” (featuring Geralt’s mother and set before his birth).


The Witcher Saga by Andrzej Sapkowski
  1. Blood of Elves (1994)
  2. Time of Contempt (1995)
  3. Baptism of Fire (1996)
  4. The Tower of Swallows (1997)
  5. Lady of the Lake (1999)


The Witcher Stand-Alone Novels by Andrzej Sapkowski
  • Season of Storms (2013)


The Witcher video game series by CD Projekt Red
  1. The Witcher (2007)
  2. The Witcher II: Assassins of Kings (2011)
  3. The Witcher III: Wild Hunt (2015)
    • The Witcher III: Hearts of Stone (2015)
    • The Witcher III: Blood and Wine (2016)

A simplified map of the Northern Kingdoms from the first Witcher video game.

Backstory

The backstory of the Witcher saga is straightforward. According to myth, over two and a half thousand years ago, the world was the domain of the elder races, elves and dwarves. An event known as the “Conjunction of the Spheres” took place, during which time the world intersected with one and possibly two other worlds through an astral alignment. Portals opened which allowed the inhabitants of these worlds to cross over, including (allegedly) humans and various creatures and monsters. This event also introduced magic to the world, and the creation of the first mages (among the various races) as being who cold harness magic.

In the year 760 after the Resurrection (what exactly the Resurrection is remains unclear), humans crossed the Yaruga and Pontar rivers into what are now called the Northern Kingdoms in force. They initially settled along the coastlands before moving inland, displacing some of the native elven tribes. Other humans, particularly magic-users, aligned with the elves to learn their ways of magic. 

However, as the human settlements expanded from villages to towns to small cities, so the elves found themselves rapidly outnumbered by the rapidly-growing human nations. The elves found themselves forced to assimilate – where they often faced racial prejudice and suspicion – or flee. Some elves later banded together with renegade dwarves and other nonhumans (most notably halflings) to found the Scoia’tael or “Squirrels”, a guerrilla force that resists human encroachment on their lands with violence.

Two centuries later, the mages Alzur and Cosimo Malaspina founded the witchers. Witchers are trained in the art of monster-slaying, which requires them to gain superhuman and supernatural abilities. These are bestowed upon them through the consumption of potions and alchemical substances known as mutagens. Witchers are formidable warriors, far outstripping most human, elven or dwarven opponents due to superior reactions, faster healing abilities and uncanny reflexes. As well as physical combat, they are trained in the art of identifying supernatural monsters and how to kill, neutralise or banish them. They also gain a significantly expanded lifespan, but are rendered infertile in the process. The witchers were founded due to the large number of monsters still living in the Northern Kingdoms, and soon found themselves in regular employment as they made the lands safe for human settlement.

In 1239 the southern kingdom of Nilfgaard annexed Ebbing, a nation to the north. Although still far to the south of the Northern Kingdoms, this event alerted the north to the growing threat of Nilfgaard. Over the next several decades, as the small kingdoms and cities to the north of Ebbing fell, the threat of Nilfgaard became clearer.

Shortly after this time, the witcher Geralt of Rivia became known to the world at large. Geralt was noted for his skill, intelligence and combat abilities, all of which outclassed that of the witchers in general. In particular, Geralt was noted for his skills in avoiding unnecessary bloodshed: he made his name in particular by saving the daughter of King Foltest of Temaria, who had been transformed by a curse into a striga. Geralt defeated the striga and restored the princess to normal. The Witcher short stories relate various adventures which see Geralt’s rise to fame (or infamy).

Some years later, Geralt became involved in the events precipitated by Nilfgaard’s invasion of the Northern Kingdoms. Geralt’s acquaintance with a young girl named Ciri, whom he had trained in witcher combat techniques, proved instrumental in halting the stopping the war and bringing about peace (as related in the five Witcher Saga novels). During this period Geralt met and fell in love with the sorceress Yennefer, befriended the dwarf Zoltan and the bard Dandelion and became involved in the affairs of kings. Two years after the end of the war, Geralt (who had gone missing in the meantime) reappeared at the witcher stronghold of Kaer Morhen suffering from amnesia, unable to recall what had happened after his “death” (this marks the beginning of the Witcher video games).

Setting
The setting for the Witcher saga is a single, large landmass known only as “The Continent”. The Continent is divided into several regions by the vast Korath Desert in the middle of the landmass. The Northern Kingdoms lie to the north-west of the desert, the Nilfgaard Empire to the south-west, Hakland to the north-east and Zerrikania to the south-east.

The Northern Kingdoms are the primary setting for the action in the story. The kingdoms are (at the outset of the saga):
  • Temeria, ruled by King Foltest from Vizima.
  • Redania, ruled by King Radovid V from Trelogor.
  • Cintra, ruled by Queen Calanthe and King Eist Tuirseach from Cintra City.
  • Kaedwen, ruled by King Henselt from Ard Carraigh.
  • Aedirn, ruled by King Demavend III from Vengerberg.
  • Kovir, more properly Kovir and Poviss, ruled by King Tankred Thyssen from Pont Vanis and Lan Exeter.
  • Lyria and Rivia, ruled by Queen Meve from Rivia and Lyria.
  • Skellige, or the Skellige Isles, ruled by Jarl Eist Tuirseach from An Skellig (and Cintra City).

Other significant locations include Kaer Morhen, the witcher stronghold, located in north-eastern Kaedwen; and the free city of Novigrad, located close to Redania and Temaria.

The Nilfgaard Empire plays a major role in the story, although its capital of Nilfgaard, the City of the Golden Tower, is located a good thousand miles or so to the south of the Northern Kingdoms. Provinces of the Nilfgaardian Empire include Etolia, Gemmera¸ Geso, Metinna, Ebbing, Vicovaro, Ymlac, Mag Turga, Nazair and Toussaint. Only Toussaint is visited in the saga, in the Blood and Wine expansion for The Witcher III: Wild Hunt.

A spectacular fan map of the entire explored Continent from DwarfChieftain on DeviantArt.

Magic
Magic is used liberally in the Witcher saga, by both mages and sorceresses (or, less kindly, “witches”), as well as Geralt himself who has access to minor magical powers. However, the attitudes to magic radically shift from kingdom to kingdom. Temeria employs mages as advisors but is distrustful of unsponsored magic-users wandering the countryside. Redania is fiercely anti-mage and burns sorcerers at the stake. Nilfgaard strictly regulates them and forces them to the serve the Emperor’s will.


Monsters

Geralt’s day job – when he isn’t getting involved in high-level politics and deciding the fate of nations – is hunting down monsters roaming the countryside. Monsters, for the most part, are animalistic and cannot be reasoned with, but in some cases they can be banished rather than killed. Some monsters are actually humans transmogrified by a curse: in some cases they can be cured, in others not. Monsters include alghouls, basilisks, bruxa, cockatrices, drowners, echinops, ghoul, kikimores, noonwraiths, strigas and wyverns.

Other entities of interest include godlings, intelligent and mischievous (but not evil) child-like spirits, and creatures such as the Crones, three powerful creatures inhabiting the swamps of Velen. These beings are intelligent and capable of speech and bargaining, but they are also capricious. These kinds of entities are ones that even Geralt would hesitate to engage in battle, but in many cases it is unnecessary as they bound by strict rules governing their interaction with mortals.

More troublesome are spectres, ghosts and otherworldly beings who are unnatural to this world but still intelligent and reasonable beings. Geralt can dispel or banish such entities. The most troublesome and dangerous of these creatures is the army known as the Wild Hunt, who are constantly on the lookout for beings of true power to recruit into their ranks.


Conception and Development

Andrzej Sapkowski was born in Łódź, Poland, in 1948 when it was still under Soviet occupation. He studied economics and worked as a senior sales representative for a foreign trade company. He was a big fan of science fiction and fantasy, particularly the Chronicles of Amber series by Roger Zelazny. He later became a translator of science fiction. He wrote his first short story, “The Witcher”, which introduced the character Geralt of Rivia, for Fantastyka magazine in 1986. The story was popular and led to a number of sequels, which were assembled as a short story collection, The Witcher, in 1990. This was followed by a second collection, which also worked as a prelude to the longer novel series Sapkowski was planning, called Sword of Destiny (1992). In 1993 Sapkowski reworked The Witcher with some new stories and re-released it under its definitive title, The Last Wish. The first Witcher novel proper, Blood of Elves, was published in 1994 and was followed by four sequels.

After writing a series of historical novels, Sapkowski returned to the Witcher universe for a prequel novel, Season of Storms, in 2013. He has since confirmed that he has plans to write more books in the setting.

By 2007 the Witcher books had sold over 2 million copies and was extremely popular in Poland, Ukraine and Russia, with additional sales in France and Spain (among others). Although these sales were very modest compared to the big British and American fantasy authors, they were unprecedented for a European author writing in a language that was not English.

In 2001 a 13-part Witcher television series aired in Poland. It was a critical and commercial failure.

In 2007 CD Projekt released The Witcher, a PC video game based on the books (the opening cinematic adapts the short story “The Witcher”). Based on the Aurora Engine developed by BioWare for their 2002 game Neverwinter Nights, The Witcher was a surprise success: the game launched with severe bugs (including one that resulted in cripplingly long load times) and a mixed critical reception. CD Projekt quickly fixed these problems and issued an upgraded version of the game, known as The Witcher: Enhanced Edition a few months later. The company was forced to cancel a planned, ambitious console version of the game due to problems with the company handling the port.

In 2008 CD Projekt also launched GoG.com (originally Good Old Games), a service dedicated to resurrecting old games and releasing them in new editions compatible with modern game systems. 

This earned them a lot of goodwill from gamers. In 2011 CD Projekt released The Witcher II: Assassins of Kings, a much more successful game than its forebear due to its great technical achievements and console editions. In early 2015 they released The Witcher III: Wild Hunt, a massive open-world roleplaying game which attracted immediate and widespread critical acclaim. In the nearly-three-years since release, The Witcher III has been acclaimed as one of the greatest video games of all time. As of 2017, the Witcher video games have sold over 25 million copies, considerably more than the Dragon Age series, and rapidly closing in on The Elder Scrolls games (which have sold approximately 40 million).


In 2017 it was announced that Netflix had optioned the television rights for a new Witcher series. The new series, which will likely be between 10 and 13 episodes in length, will be made for an English-speaking audience and will involve both Sapkowski and several of the creative minds behind the video games as advisors. It is likely that this series will debut in early-to-mid 2019.


Further Reading



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8 comments:

Marko said...

Awesome post! I love these.

szopen said...

Great introduction to the witcher universe. However, it is known that series will be based on books, starting with short stories most likely. CD Projekt will not be involved, which gives enough hints that - again, most likely - the games will be pretty much ignored.

Adam Whitehead said...

CD Project Red are not involved as a company, but the animation director who created the CG cut scene sequences for the three games is involved as a senior producer and director. His company is also producing the special and creature effects for the TV series, so there will be a visual similarity.

My suspicion is that the TV show will start with the earliest short stories, build up to the saga and once they've covered that - which will probably take 5 or 6 seasons - look at what options are open to them. If the show is still a big hit they could look at adapting the game stories, although that would be difficult as they'd have to buy a fresh option from CD Projekt (I'd also ignore Witcher 1 as the amnesia stuff is cheesy, just do the political story from W2 and then dive into W3 which is much more of a direct follow-up to the books and gives more closure to Ciri, Geralt, Yennefer and the Emperor's storylines).

Ghost said...

From what I read so far, I think it's most likely the TV series will star a younger Geralt or maybe even one who had just started his Path. In the earliest short stories, Geralt wasn't as famous and it would also make sense as this would allow the series to introduce the wider public to the Witcher universe.

szopen said...

Well...
Bagiński stated many times that he is big fan of Sapkowski (well, who from our generation isnt... I mean in Poland). Sapkowski is involved. Sapkowski many times stated taht games are not cannon and if he will want to write continuation, he will not feel to be bound by the games.

The conclusion, it seems to me, is obvious.

As for the similarity : well, look at the Parowski's comics and earl illustration, then at the infamous hexer tv series imagery... Seems that some similarities will exist, because even before the games there seemed to be a (very broad) consensus forming how Geralt should look like :D.

Anonymous said...

I know you put a lot of time, effort, and research into posts like these, and this is your blog and you can do whatever you want with it. But I'm kind of confused why you do (I say this as a fan of your blog). This is the sort of information that anyone interested can get from wikipedia, or dozens of other writeups about the Witcher world. It just seems like a waste of your talent and interesting perspective on sci-fi fantasy to devote so much time and so many posts to these kinds of wiki-summaries or lengthy recaps of Babylon 5 episodes.

Adam Whitehead said...

Fair question. The main answer I think is that the existing introductions to such franchises are inadequate. Wikipedia articles are usually much briefer, don't give out the information I think people are looking for and are limited by notability requirements (i.e. they can't give out relevant information if it doesn't pass an often-arbitrary rule).

The Franchise Familiariser articles are among the most popular I've ever done (which is why I've done more this year), so I'll keep doing them. They'd be (probably) useless for mega-franchises like ASoIaF, Star Wars and Star Trek, but for these mid-ranking and lesser-known franchises which people have heard of but maybe not committed to, they seem to have struck a chord.

Anonymous said...

Really liked the first two short story collections, kind of stuck in the first novel at the moment. A lot of it seems very introductory and redundant if one has played the third game (I have played all three, but this actually most explicitly refers to the novels, notably with Ciri and Yennefer, of course).